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Psych、Syck、YAML 和编码

galeki posted @ 2012年3月25日 13:55 in RoR with tags ruby 编码 psych syck , 9802 阅读

这次 is-programmer 升级碰到了一个很棘手的问题,花了好长时间才把大致的原因搞明白,这里记录一下经过。

背景

在 Ruby 1.9.2 之前,YAML 的解析使用的是 Syck 这个引擎,而从 1.9.3 之后,默认的引擎变成了 Psych。Psych 相比 Syck 有以下优点:

  • 可以正确处理 UTF-8 字符。
  • 基于的底层库是 YAML 标准组所写的 libyaml。
  • 支持 YAML 1.1。
  • Syck 已经不再维护了。

UTF-8 字符串的处理是 Psych 和 Syck 之间最主要的一个区别:

Syck 因为无法直接处理 UTF-8 字符,所以如果导出的值中含有 UTF-8 字符串的话,Syck 会把它 Base64 编码,然后保存为 binary 格式:

# Syck
$ YAML.dump(:title => "标签云")
=>
 ---
 :title: !binary |-
  5qCH562+5LqR

Psych 可以正确序列化 UTF-8 字符,所以 YAML 中保存的就是原始字符:

# Psych 
$ YAML.dump(:title => "标签云")
=>
 ---
 :title: 标签云

当然 Syck 这个引擎在 ruby 1.9.3 里面还是存在的,可以通过设置 YAML:ENGINE 来在程序中切换:

$ YAML::ENGINE.yamler = 'syck'    # 使用 Syck 引擎
$ YAML::ENGINE.yamler = 'psych'   # 使用 Psych 引擎

问题

is-programmer 早在 ruby 1.8.x 的时代就开始使用 YAML 来保存设置,自然 UTF-8 字符串都是 Syck 的 binary 格式,这次升级将 ruby 从 1.9.2 升级到了1.9.3,YAML 的默认引擎也就切换到了 Psych,因为本地测试都是使用全新的数据,因此并没有发现问题。

结果上线之后,发现大量的中文设置出现类似

æ ‡ç­¾äº‘æ ‡ç­¾äº‘æ ‡ç­¾äº‘

的乱码。

不用说,问题肯定出在 Psych 上。

原因

既然出现乱码的都是含有中文字符串的设置,那么问题就比较明朗了,那就是:

Psych 似乎不能正确解析在 Syck 下序列化的 binary 格式的字符串。

我猜测是因为 Psych 不知道 binary 字符串原来的编码,也可能是 Psych 的 bug 或是标准不兼容。总之,如果使用 Psych 来读取 Syck 下保存的 UTF-8 字符串,会出现很诡异的结果:

$ YAML::ENGINE.yamler = 'psych'
$ YAML.load("---\n:title: !binary |-\n5qCH562+5LqR")
=>
 {:title=>"\xE6\xA0\x87\xE7\xAD\xBE\xE4\xBA\x91"}

然后,在网页上显示的就是更加诡异的诸如以下的字符:

æ ‡ç­¾äº‘

解决

本来,要解决这个问题很简单,只需要把 YAML 引擎切换回 Syck 就行了:

 YAML::ENGINE.yamler = 'syck'

这样虽然无法使用新引擎,但是至少显示不会出现问题。

不过,由于上线之后,一些用户又重新保存了设置,问题一下就复杂化了。

把引擎切换回 Syck 已经来不及了,因为 Syck 也不能正确解析 Psych 下保存过得 YAML。

不仅仅是如此,更加郁闷的是,现在 YAML 中不仅有老的 binary 格式字符串,还有被 Psych 保存过的乱码字符串,而且还有保存正确的 Psych 格式的中文 UTF-8 字符串……

这可肿么办呐 

经过一番 之后,决定还是先想想怎么把乱码恢复成正确的中文字符串。

之后又经过了一番 ……终于发现,Psych 似乎在解析了 binary 字符串之后,并没有把字符串标示为 UTF-8,而是标示为 ISO-5589-1(也就是 LATIN-1),之后由于 ruby 内部的编码被设成成了 UTF-8,所以字符串又被按照 ISO-8859-1 的过程转换了一番,于是就得到了网页上显示的那样诡异的字符。

这样的话,如果想把乱码转换回中文,那么就需要:

"xxx乱码xxx".force_encoding("UTF-8")\    # 先强制标示为 UTF-8
            .encode("ISO-8859-1")\      # 再转换成 ISO-8859-1 
            .force_encoding("UTF-8")    # 再强制标示为 UTF-8

这样正确的字符串就回来啦~

不过,YAML 还有已经被 Psych 正确保存的中文字符串,还有一些非中文的英文设置,怎么把乱码和这些正确的字符串区分呢?

幸运的是,如果是英文字符串,在这个过程中内容并不会改变(英文没有编码问题就是爽),而如果是已经正确保存的中文字符串,那么在 encode("ISO-8859-1") 的时候,会 raise 一个 Encoding::UndefinedConversionError 异常,这样只要捕捉这个异常并保留原值就行了。

于是,如果想把混乱的 old_hash 修复的话,就要:

    def fix_yaml_hash(old_hash)
        new_hash = {}
        old_hash.each do |key, value|
            if value.is_a?(String)
                begin
                    new_value = value.clone.force_encoding("UTF-8").encode("ISO-8859-1").force_encoding("UTF-8")
                rescue
                    new_value = value
                end
            else
                new_value = value
            end
            new_hash[key] = new_value
        end
        return new_hash
    end

这样的话,问题就全面解决了~

结论

  • 如果你已经使用上了 Psych 并且一切正常,那么就用吧,Psych 在今后应该可以成为 ruby 处理 YAML 的标准。
  • 如果你还在使用 Syck,还是先 YAML::ENGINE.yamler = 'syck' 用着吧。
  • 如果还没有开始使用 YAML,那么强烈建议趁着这个机会去转向更加流行的 JSON
Head_small
邱焜 说:
2012年3月25日 16:10

什么流行用什么

Avatar_small
依云 说:
2012年3月25日 16:51

好不容易 Python 没乱码了,Ruby 又来。。。

Head_small
邱焜 说:
2012年3月25日 17:04

=-= 看了几遍还是理解不能啊,编码真是坑爹

Avatar_small
galeki 说:
2012年3月25日 20:56

当初 Ruby 1.8 -> 1.9 的升级过程中也因为编码问题抓狂了一把 -_-

Avatar_small
galeki 说:
2012年3月25日 20:57

我觉得我下个星期也会看不懂 T^T

Avatar_small
λ 说:
2012年3月26日 09:36

怎么有种似曾看过这文章的感觉?……@_@

=.= 说:
2012年4月06日 14:19

python 没乱码了,是指的 python 2 -> python 3 吗?曾经被 py 2 的中文编码搞的头疼

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